Resumen: Johnson and Raye (1981) proposed a model of a process to differentiate between self-generated and perceptual memories, which is based on the distinctive qualities of representations of both memories. Descriptions of self-generated memories are usually longer and have more references to cognitive operations and, in general, more idiosyncratic information. These descriptions of self-generated memories,
also, have less sensorial and contextual details than the descriptions of perceptual memories. These differences have been also found between real memory descriptions and those generated by misleading information (Schooler et al., 1986, 1988), lies (Alonso-Quecuty, 1992) or self-suggested information based on previous knowledge (Diges, 1992). On the other hand, it has been investigated how several factors influence the differential features of both types of memory descriptions. Suengas (1991) point out five variables with an influence in reality monitoring process: age, information subject matter, delay, thinking or talking about memory contents, perceptive resemblance and the cutting down in the cognitive mechanisms.
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of preparation on the characteristics of imagined and perceptual memory descriptions. Following recent
research (Alonso-Quecuty, 1992; Suengas and Johnson, 1988) it was hypothesized that real memories of subjects in the preparation condition would contain more sensorial and contextual details and more internal characteristics (in terms of the Johnson and Raye, 1981, reality monitoring) than subjects in the no-preparation condition. Also, descriptions of subjects asked to prepare a report of an imagined event should contain more external characteristics than the imagined memories of subjects who do not receive instructions about preparing their reports.
A 2x2 factorial design was used, which included the between-subjects manipulation of two variables: the origin of the memory (perceived vs. imagined) and the preparation of reports (prepared vs. not-prepared). And, the free recall measures included: accuracy variables (sensorial and contextual details and distortions) and qualitative variables (explanations, length of the narrative, changes in the narrative order, reference to cognitive processes, dubitative expressions, impossible information and spontaneous corrections). Half of the subjects were asked to remember a filmed traffic accident (27 secs. duration). The rest of the subjects were presented with verbal description of the accident and were asked to imagine it. Half of each group were instructed to prepare the reports before give it them; the other half were not instructed to do this. Then, the reports were typed and analysed by two independent trained judges in terms of the presence or absence of the quantitative and qualitative variables. The scoring sys-tem used to analyse the statements was developed and validated in previous studies (e.g., Diges et al., 1990). Previous analysis showed that imagined and perceptual descriptions cannot be directly compared because of the imagined instructions. Thus, the preparation effects on perceptual and on imagined descriptions were analysed separately. On the external memories, the results showed that preparation significantly increased the number of sensorial and contextual details (t(28)=1.6l8; p
Resumen: Recent studies on the mechanism governing the Laurentide ice sheet oscillations of the Last Ice Age focus on the most critical effect of the basal hydraulic processes enhanced when the ice is sliding along soft deformable beds. To understand the import of this, we consider Fowler and Johnson's 0-D hydrological flow model describing the sudden and rapid movements forward (surges)
of a till-based 1-D ice sheet sliding on a hat soft bed. The basic idea is that the interplay between the ice sheets dynamics, the basal drainage system, and the sliding law can generate a surging behaviour. Mathematically this means that a multiple valued relationship between the ice flux and the ice thickness arises and the mass conservation equation turns out to be of multivalued type for some special values of the dimensionless parameters involved in the model. Assuming that a multiple valued ice flux law of the Fowler and Johnson type herds, we prove the existence of a weak bounded discontinuous solution to the system which becomes periodic after a suitable time.
Palabras clave: system of nonlinear equations; ice sheet models; surges
Resumen: AstMon-UCM (All Sky Transmission MONitor) es una cámara de todo el cielo dedicada a medir la calidad astronómica del cielo nocturno. Este instrumento está instalado en el Observatorio UCM (Facultad de CC. Físicas) y de manera autónoma toma imágenes en bandas B, V y R de Johnson para determinar las constantes de extinción atmosférica y realizar mapas de brillo de fondo de cielo nocturno. Es el primer instrumento
de su clase instalado en un observatorio astronómico urbano y por lo tanto sirve para estudiar los efectos de la contaminación lumínica en el brillo del cielo. Se muestran detalles de su instalación, operación y resultados hasta la fecha de publicación de esta memoria.
AstMon-UCM (All Sky Transmission MONitor) is an all-sky camera devoted to measure the astronomical quelity of the night sky. This device belongs to the astronomical observatory of the UCM (Observatorio UCM) on top of the Physics building. Images in B, V and R bands of the Johnson system taken by AstMon-UCM are used to determine atmospheric extinction and to map the night sky brightness. It is the first device of its type installed in an urban observatory and it is useful to study the effects of Light Pollution on the night sky brightness. A description of AstMon-UCM and its operation is included in this report. Results up to the publication date are also included.
Palabras clave: Contaminación lumínica, Observatorio UCM, Observatorios astronómicos, Monitor de brillo de fondo de cielo
Resumen: The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of preparation on the characteristics of imagined and perceptual memory descriptions.
Following recent research (Alonso?Quecuty, 1990; Suengas & Johnson, 1988) it was hypothesized that subjects' real memories in the "preparation condition" (i.e. when they have been instructed to prepare what they are going to say before reporting) would contain more sensorial and contextual details and more
internal characteristics (in terms of the Johnson & Raye, 1981, reality monitoring model) than those of subjects in the "no?preparation condition". It was also hypothesized that the descriptions of subjects asked to report their memories of a previously imagined event would contain more external characteristics when they are instructed to prepare their descriptions than when they are not.
The results confirmed both hypotheses. As predicted, perceptual memory descriptions had more internal characteristics and contained more amount of sensorial and contextual details when they were prepared. In the same way, preparation yielded imagined memory descriptions with more external characteristics. It was also found that prepared memory descriptions of imagined events contained more contextual and sensorial information. These results are discussed in terms of their practical implications for the discriminability of real and imagined memories.
Resumen: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of preparation on the characteristics of “internal” (imagined) and “external” (real) memories. Following recent research (Alonso-Quecuty, 1992; Suengas & Johnson, 1988) it was hypothesized that: 1) memory descriptions from a real event would be differents in a series of features than memory descriptions from an imagined event; 2) memory descriptions from
a real event in the preparation condition would contain more sensorial and contextual details and more internal characteristics (in terms of the Johnson & Raye, 1981, reality monitoring) than subjects in the no-preparation condition; 3) statements of subjects asked to prepare a report of an imagined event should contain more external characteristics than the imagined memories of subjects who do not receive instructions about preparing their statements. The results confirmed partially the hypotheses.
Resumen: La idea de realizar esta memoria nació en la primavera de 2004. En aquel momento, el autor trabajaba en Ethicon, una división de Johnson & Johnson. Esta empresa había lanzado al mercado una sutura con características antibacterianas, que suponía una innovación en este terreno. En aquel momento, no disponíamos de evidencia clínica (tan solo estudios preclínicos y en animales) que sustentara el uso de dicha tecnología. Los resultados
in vitro y los modelos animales eran extraordinariamente alentadores. En este contexto, nace la idea de preparar un modelo específicamente orientado a Cirugía Ortopédica, una de las áreas donde la infección quirúrgica tiene un impacto más severo, como se ha comentado anteriormente. Con todas las limitaciones que tiene nuestro trabajo, la idea de los autores es que este estudio sirva como punto de partida para situaciones similares, en las que se desee emplear una metodología lógica, reproducible y operativa. Es decir, que pueda aplicarse como método de análisis a la hora de valorar el impacto que tendría la introducción de una nueva tecnología en un hospital, orientada a solventar / paliar un problema clínico grave y en un contexto de escasez de información clínica relevante y de calidad.
Resumen: In the present study 120 autobiographical memories about traumatic events, with negative valence, and about happy events, with positive valence, were com-pared. In order to analyse the phenomenological characteristics of both type of memories an specific questionnaire based on the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire (Johnson et al., 1988) and on the Trauma Memory Quality Questionnaire (Meiser-Stedman
et al., 2007) was used. In general and in relation to positive memo-ries, results showed that memories for trauma contained less sensorial information, were more complex, and more difficult to verbalise. Traumatic memories were also less temporally contextualized, associated to more intense feelings, and people remembered better what they thought at the time of occurrence and think about the event more frequently. In contrast, no differences were found between positive and negative memories on spatial location, vividness, definition, accessibility, fragmentation, remember perspective, doubts about the accuracy of the memory, and talk about the event. We can therefore conclude that traumatic memory is not as special as previously suggested, and that there are no data that allows us to confirm the existence of repressed, and then recovered, memories.[RESUMEN]
En el presente trabajo se compararon 120 relatos intrasujetos de hechos autobiográficos traumáticos (con una valencia negativa) y felices (de valencia positiva), mediante un cuestionario de auto-evaluación de características de los recuerdos elaborado a partir del cuestionario MCQ propuesto por Johnson y cols. (1988) y el TMQQ propuesto por Meiser-Stedman y cols. (2007). Los resultados muestran que en general los recuerdos de hechos traumáticos en comparación con hechos alegres se caracterizan por contener menos información sensorial, ser más complejas, más difíciles de fechar, con sentimientos asociados más intensos, un mejor recuerdo de pensamientos asociados en el momento de su ocurrencia, más difíciles de expresar verbalmente y con más pensamientos recurrentes sobre lo ocurrido. Por el contrario, no se encontraron diferencias significativas sobre localización espacial del suceso, vividez, definición, accesibilidad, fragmentación, perspectiva de recuperación, dudas sobre su ocurrencia, ni tendencia a hablar sobre lo ocurrido. De este modo, las memorias sobre hechos traumáticos no parecen tan diferentes de las memorias sobre otro tipo de hechos autobiográficos, pero tampoco podemos confirmar la existencia de memorias reprimidas y después recuperadas.
Palabras clave: Memoria, Psicología del testimonio, Testigos, Análisis de credibilidad, Trauma, Memory, Eyewitness testimony, Credibility assessment